نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه پیام نور، تهران، ایران.

2 گروه روان‌شناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران.

10.30486/jsrp.2019.570365.1385

چکیده

این پژوهش با هدف تعیین اثربخشی طرح‌واره درمانی بر نشخوار فکری، احساس تنهایی عاطفی اجتماعی و سلامت عمومی زنان مطلقه انجام شده است. روش پژوهش نیمه‌آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. از بین زنان مطلقه مراجعه‌کننده به مراکز مشاوره شهر ساری 40 نفر به روش در دسترس انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش و کنترل به روش تصادفی گمارش شدند و به مقیاس احساس تنهایی اجتماعی و عاطفی بزرگسالان (2004)، پرسشنامه سلامت عمومی (1972)؛ مقیاس نشخوار فکری نولن هوکسما و مارو (1991) در پیش‌آزمون و پس‌آزمون پاسخ دادند. گروه آزمایشی بر اساس پروتکل طرح‌واره درمانی یانگ، کلسکو و ویشیر (2003) طی ده جلسه مورد آموزش قرار گرفتند. نتایج یافته‌ها با استفاده از تجزیه‌وتحلیل کوواریانس چند متغیره نشان داد که طرح‌واره درمانی به‌طور معنی‌داری باعث ارتقای سلامت عمومی و کاهش نشخوارفکری و احساس تنهایی زنان مطلقه می‌شود و اضطراب (02/0P=)، اختلال در کارکردهای اجتماعی (001/0P=)، افسردگی (039/0P=)، پاسخ‌های نشخواری (000/0P=)، پاسخ‌های منحرف‌کننده حواس (000/0P=)، تنهایی رمانتیک (000/0)، تنهایی خانوادگی (035/0P=) و تنهایی اجتماعی (007/0P=) در گروه آزمایش که مداخله را دریافت کرده بودند متفاوت از گروه کنترل متفاوت بود. پیشنهاد می‌شود مشاوران و درمانگران برای بازتوانی زنان پس از طلاق در جهت افزایش سلامت عمومی، کاهش نشخوار فکری و روابط اجتماعی تسهیل‌یافته‌تر از قواعد طرح‌واره درمانی استفاده نمایند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of schema therapy on rumination, loneliness and general health of divorced women

نویسندگان [English]

  • mansooreh nikoogoftar 1
  • alireza sangani 2

1 Department of Psychology, University of Payame nour, Tehran, Iran.

2 Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of schema therapy on general health, rumination, and loneliness of divorced women. The research method was semi-experimental with pre-test and post-test design with control group. Twelve volunteers who were referred to counseling centers in Sari, were selected by volunteering method. They were randomly assigned to two experimental and control groups and assigned to the social and emotional loneliness scale of adults (2004), the general health questionnaire (1972), the scale Nullen Hoeksma and Marrow (1991) rumbled in pre-test and post-test. The experimental group was trained in ten sessions based on the Young Schematic Protocol, Calcesko and Washir (2003). The results of the findings, using multivariate covariance analysis, showed that schema therapy significantly increased general health and reduced rumination and loneliness of divorced women. Anxiety (P=0.02), disruption in social function (P=0.001), depression (P=0.039), rumination responses (P=0/000), distracting responses (P=0/000), romantic loneliness (P=0,000), family loneliness (P=0,035) and social loneliness (P=0.007) in the experimental group receiving the intervention were different from that of the control group. It is recommended that Advisers and therapist’s use of schema therapy rules to rehabilitate women after divorce in order to increase general health, reduce rumination and facilitate social relationships.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Schema Therapy
  • Health Promotion
  • rumination
  • loneliness
  • divorced women

Abbasi, M., Alizadeh, M., Omidvar, S., Hosseini, M., Khatibi, A., & Safakash, M. (2017). Statistical Yearbook (Divorce in Iran), Tehran: Civil Registration Organization. [Persian].

Abolghasemi, A. (2006). Psychological tests. Ardabil: Bagh Rezvan Publications. [Persian].

Bagherinejad, M., Salehi Fedredi, J., & Tabatabai, S. (2010). The relationship between rumination and depression in a sample of Iranian students. Educational and Psychological Studies, 11 (1), 38-21. [Persian].

Bahrami, F., Sudani, M., & Mehrabizadeh Honarmand, M. (2010). Evaluation of the effectiveness of Gestalt therapy on self-esteem, depression, and loneliness in depressed divorced women. Socio-psychological studies of women, 8, 1, 129-145. [Persian].

Balsamo, M., Carlucci, L., Rita Sergi, M., & Klein Murdock, K. (2015). The Mediating Role of Early Maladaptive Schemas in the Relation between Co-Rumination and Depression in Young Adults. PLoS ONE 10(10). DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone. 0140177

Cockram, D. M., Drummond, P. D., & Lee, C. W. (2010). Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Clinical psychology & psychotherapy, 17(3), 165-182.‌

Cassidy, J. (2012). Loneliness and peer relations in adolescence. Soc Dev., 21: 273-293. 10.1111/j. 1467-9507.2011.00611.x.

Ditommaso, E., Brannen, C., & Best, L. A. (2004). Measurement and validity characteristics of the

 

short version of the social and emotional loneliness scale for adults. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 64(1), 99-119.‌

 Donald, T. Z. (2008). Rmination about stressful life event: measuring post-event rumination. MS Thesis. Washington State University, Department of Psychology.

Dickhaut, V., & Arntz, A. (2014). Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a pilot study. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 45(2):242-51.

Goldberg, D, P. (1972). The Detection of Psychiatric Illness by Questionnaire.Maudsley Monograph No. 21. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Hawke, L. D., Provencher, M. D., & Parikh, S. V. (2013). Schema therapy for bipolar disorder: a conceptual model and future directions. Journal of affective disorders, 148(1), 118-122.‌

Heilemann, M. V., Pieters, H. C., Kehoe, P., & Yang, Q. (2011). Schema therapy, motivational interviewing, and collaborative-mapping as treatment for depression among low income, second generation Latinas. Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 42(4), 473-480.‌

Hooman, A. (1996). Standardization and standardization of general health questionnaire for undergraduate students of Tarbiat Moallem University. Tehran: Educational Research Institute, Teacher Training University. [Persian].

Jokar, B., & Salimi, A. (2009). A study of psychometric properties and validity of Adult Socio-Emotional Loneliness Scale (selsa-s). Journal of Daneshvar Pezeshki, Shahed University Bi-Quarterly, 16, 8, 102-123. [Persian].

Leahy, R. L. (2016). Emotional Schema Therapy: A Metaexperiential Model. Australian Psychologist, 51(2), 82-88.‌

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on psychological science, 3(5), 400-424.‌

Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 115-121.

Marieke, C., Abma, T. A., Bamelis, L., & Arntz, A. (2011). Personality disorder patients’ perspectives on the introduction of imagery within schema therapy: a qualitative study of patients’ experiences. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 18(4), 482-490.‌

Mohammad Nejadi, B., & Rabiee, M. (2015). Evaluation of the effectiveness of schema therapy scheme on quality of life and psychological well-being of divorced women. Journal of Law Enforcement Medicine, 4 (3): 179-190. [Persian].

Panahifar, S., Yousefi, N., & Amani, A. (2014). The Effectiveness of Schema-Based Couple Therapy on Early Maladaptive Schemata Adjustment and the Increase of Divorce Applicants Adaptability. Kuwait Chapter of the Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(9), 339.‌

Qasemi, A., & Sarukhani, b. (2014). Social factors of divorce and psychosocial health in couples applying for consensual and non-consensual divorce. Cultural and Educational Quarterly of Women and Family, 8 (26) 37–7. [Persian].

Querstret, D., & Cropley, M. (2013). Assessing treatments used to reduce rumination and/or worry: A systematic review. Clinical psychology review, 33(8), 996-1009.‌

Rahim Aghaei, F., Hatamipour, K., & Ashoori, J. (2017). The Effect of Group Schema Therapy on Depression Symptoms and Nurses' Quality of Life. Nursing Education Journal. 6 (3), 17-22.

Ranjbar, A., Rasouli, M., & Sanaei Zakir, b. (2014). The effect of group semantics on promoting the mental health of first year high school boys in boarding schools. Journal of Clinical Psychology and Counseling Research, 4, 1, 48-62. [Persian].

Sadeghi Fasaei, S., & Isari, M. (2012). Gender Analysis of Life After Divorce: A Qualitative Study. Women in Development and Politics (Women's Research), 10, 3 (38), 5-30. [Persian].

Sandler, I. N., Wheeler, L. A., & Braver, S. L. (2013). Relations of parenting quality, interparental conflict, and overnights with mental health problems of children in divorcing families with high legal conflict. Journal of Family Psychology, 27(6), 915.‌

Sava, F. A. (2009). Maladaptive schemas. Irrational beliefs, and their relationship with the five-factor personality model. Journal of cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 9, 135-147.

Sawyer, M. G., Harchak, T. F., Spence, S. H., Bond, L., Graetz, B., Kay, D., & Sheffield, J. (2010). School-based prevention of depression: a 2-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of the beyondblue schools research initiative. Journal of Adolescent Health, 47(3), 297-304.‌

Sempertegui, G. A., Karreman, A., Arntz, A., & Bekker, M. H. (2013). Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: A comprehensive review of its empirical foundations, effectiveness and implementation possibilities. Clinical psychology review, 33(3), 426-447.‌

Schinka, K. C., van Dulmen, M. H., Mata, A. D., Bossarte, R., & Swahn, M. (2013). Psychosocial predictors and outcomes of loneliness trajectories from childhood to early adolescence. Journal of Adolescence, 36(6), 1251-1260.‌

Simpson, S. G., Morrow, E., van Vreeswijk, M., & Reid, C. (2010). Group schema therapy for eating disorders: a pilot study. Frontiers in psychology, 1.‌

shokhmgar, Z. (2016). The effectiveness of schema therapy on reducing mental health problems caused by extramarital relationships in couples. Nesim Health, 5, 1 (17), 1-7. [Persian].

Titov, N., Dear, B. F., Ali, S., Zou, J. B., Lorian, C. N., Johnston, L., & Fogliati, V. J. (2015). Clinical and cost-effectiveness of therapist-guided internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for older adults with symptoms of depression: a randomized controlled trial. Behavior Therapy, 46(2), 193-205.‌

Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema. (2003). Ruminative Reconsidered: A Psychometric Analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 27(3), 247-259.

Victor, C. R., Burholt, V., & Martin, W. (2012). Loneliness and ethnic minority elders in Great Britain: an exploratory study. Journal of cross-cultural gerontology, 27(1), 65-78.‌

Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. Guilford Press.‌

Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach, Rev. Professional Resource Press/Professional Resource Exchange.‌

Yousefi, N., Etemadi, A., Bahrami, F., Ahmadi, S., Fatehizadeh, M. (2010). Comparison of early maladaptive schemas in divorced and normal spouses as predictors of divorce. Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology, 16 (1): 21-33. [Persian].