نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استاد گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

2 دانشجوی دکتری، گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه محقق اردبیلی، اردبیل، ایران.

10.30486/jsrp.2019.1865286.1770

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، تعیین نقش دلسوزی به خود و خردمندی در پیش‌بینی افسردگی سالمندان بود. جامعۀ آماری پژوهش را همۀ سالمندان بالای 60 سال شهر کرمانشاه در سال 1397 تشکیل دادند که از این بین 200 سالمند عضو کانون بازنشستگان با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. در این پژوهش برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات از مقیاس دلسوزی به خود (Neff, 2003)، مدل سه‌بعدی خردمندی (Ardelt, 2003) و مقیاس افسردگی پیری (Yesavage, 1982) استفاده شد. داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل رگرسیون چندگانۀ گام‌به‌گام و توسط نرم‌افزار SPSS25 مورد تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج ضرایب رگرسیون نیز نشان داد که 25درصد از واریانس افسردگی به‌وسیلۀ دلسوزی به خود و 19درصد از واریانس آن به‌وسیلۀ خردمندی پیش‌بینی می‌شود؛ بنابراین بالا بودن میزان دلسوزی به خود و خردمندی به‌عنوان عامل‌های مهمی در پیش‌بینی سلامت روان، احتمال بروز افسردگی را در سالمندان کاهش می‌دهد.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Depression in the elderly: Investigating the role of self-compassion and wisdom

نویسندگان [English]

  • Niloofar Mikaeili 1
  • Saeede hedayat 2

1 Professor, Department of Psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran.

2 Department of psychology, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardebil, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to determine the role of self-compassion and wisdom in anticipating depression in the elderly. The statistical population of the study consisted of all elderly people over 60 years of age in Kermanshah in 2019. A total of 200 elderly members of the Association of retired persons were selected through accessible sampling. In this research the Self-Compassion Scale (Neff, 2003), The 3D Wisdom Model (Ardelt, 2003) and Geriatric Depression Scale (Yesavage, 1982) were used to collect information.Data were analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple stepwise regressionanalysis and via SPSS25 software. Findings show that self-compassion and wisdom are correlated with depression. Also, the results of regression coefficients showed that%25 of variance of depression was predicted by self-compassion and%19 of variance by wisdom. Therefore, the high level of self-compassion and wisdom as important factors in improving mental health reduces the risk of depression in the elderly.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • self-Compassion
  • wisdom
  • Depression
  • elderly

Ardelt, M. (2003). Empirical Assessment of a Three-Dimensional Wisdom Scale. Research on Ageing, 25(3), 275-324.

Ardelt, M. (2000). Antecedents and Effects of Wisdom in Old Age: A Longitudinal Perspective on Aging Well. Research on Aging, 22:360-94

Arimitsu, K., & Hofmann, S. G. (2015), Cognitions as mediators in the relationship between self-compassion and affect. Personality and Individual Differences, 74, 41– 48.

Ardelt, M. (2004). Wisdom as expert knowledge system: A critical review of a contemporary operationalization of an ancient concept. Human Development, 47, 257-85.

Asadi, S., Amiri, S., Molavi, H., Bagheri, K. (2013). Introducing concept of wisdom in psychology and its Educational applications. New Educational Approaches  , 8(2), 1-28. ]Persian[

 

Basharpoor, S., & Issazadegan, A. (2012). Role of self-compassion and forgiveness in prediction of depression severity among university students. Journal of Research in Behavioural Sciences, 10, 6, 452-461.]Persian[

Bergsman, A., &Ardelt, M. (2012). Self-reported wisdom and happiness: An empirical investigation. Journal of Happiness Studies, 13(3):481-99.

Crocker, J., Luhtanen, R., Cooper, M.L., &Bouvrette, S. A. (2003). Contingencies of self-worth in college students: Measurement and theory, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85(13), 894-908.

Esmaeili, M., Zare, H. (2017). Autobiographical Memory in the Elderly: The Role of Excitements in Recovering Memories. Aging Psychology, 3(1), 1-9. ]Persian[

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & Me Hugh. P.R. (1975)."Mini-Mental State": A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinicians. Journal of Psychiatry Research, 12, 189-198.

Foroughan, M., Jafari, Z., Shirin Bayan, P., Ghaem Magham Farahani, Z., & Rahgozar, M. (2008). Validation of Mini- Mental State Examination (MMSE) in The Elderly Population of Tehran. Advances in Cognitive Sciences, 10 (2), 29-37. ]Persian[

Grossmann, I. (2017). Wisdom in context.Perspectives on Psychological Science. 12 (2):233-57.

Gilbert, P., &Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology Psychotherapy, 13: 353-79.

Hedayat, S., & Arefi, M. (2015). The Effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy on improving sleep quality in elderly.Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology, 16, 2(60), 60-68. ]Persian[

Hossein Khanzadeh, A., Taher, M., Fallah Morteza Nejad, Z., Seyed Noori, Z. (2016). Prediction of Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem based on Self-compassion. CPAP, 14 (1), 33-42. ]Persian[

Kreiger, T., Altenstein, D., Baetig, I., Doering, N. &Holtforth, M. G. (2013). Selfcompassion in depression: Associations with depressive symptons, rumination and avoidance in depressed outpatients. Journal of Behavior Therapy, 44(3), 501–513.

Leary, M. R., Tate, E. B., Adams, C. E., Allen, A. B., & Hancock, J. (2007). Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: The implications of treating oneself kindly.Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(5), 887– 904.

Momeni, K. (2012). Effectiveness of Integrative and Narrative Reminiscence Therapies on Depression Symptoms Reduction of Institutionalized Older Adults in Women. Family Counseling and Psychotherapy, 1(3), 366-381. ]Persian[

Malakouti K, Fathollahi P, Mirabzadeh A, Salavati M, Kahani S. Validation of Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) in Iran. Research in Medicine, 2006; 30 (4), 361-369. ]Persian[

Momeni, F., Shahidi, SH., Mootabi, F., & Heydary, M. (2014). Psychometric properties of a Farsi version of the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS). Contemporary Psychology, 8(2), 27-40. ]Persian[

Mikaeili, N., Rajabi, S., & Abbasi, M. (2012). A Comparison of Loneliness, Mental Health and Self-Efficacy of the Elderly. Journal of Social Psychology (New finding in psychology), 7, 22, 73-81. ]Persian[

Mental Health and Older Adults. 2013; Available from:

 http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs381/en./

Narimani, M., samadifard, H. (2017). Social Health in the elderly: The Role of Self-esteem, Self-efiency and happiness. Aging Psychology, 3(3), 199-206. ]Persian[

National Statistics Portal of Iran. Population of the country by age groups based on the census of 2016. Available at: http: // www. sci. org. ir / content / userfiles / maps / N-3. Html. ]Persian[

Neff, K. D., & Germer, C. (2017). Self-Compassion and Psychological Wellbeing, In J, Doty (Ed.) Oxford Handbook of Compassion Science,Oxford University Press.

Neff, K. D. (2016). The self-compassion scale is a valid and theoretically coherent measure of self compassion. Mindfulness, 7(1), 264-274.

Neff, K. D., & Pommier, E. (2008). Self- Compassion and other-focused responding. In annual meeting of the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Albuquerque, NM.

Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure Selfcompassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223–250.

Neff, K. (2003). Self-compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitudetoward oneself. Self and Identity, 2: 85-101.

Neff, K.D, & Germer, C.K. (2013). Self-Compassion Program. Journal Clinical Psychology, 69 (1), 28–44.

Neff, K. D., Kirkpatrick, K. & Rude, S. S. (2007). Self-compassion and its link to adaptivepsychological functioning. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 139-154.

Nicholas, T.V..Sheppard, S.C., Forsyth, J.P., &Earleywine, M. (2011). Self-compassion is a better predictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression. 25(1), 123-130.

Niko Ghoftar, M., Saeedi, M. (2013). Prediction of Elderly’s General Health by their Wisdom. Quarterly Journal of Health Psychology, 3(10), 38-46. ]Persian[

Pedramnia, S., Yosefi, Z. (2018). The Relationship between Wisdom Dimensions and Thought Control Strategies of Mothers with Symptoms of Behavioral Disorders in Girls. Jcmh, 5(2), 131-141. ]Persian[

Pourebrahim, T., & Rasoli, R. (2008). Effects of Group Logotherapy on decreasing Depression and Increasing Meaning in life on older adults resident

 

in Sanatorium. Journal of Applied Psychology, 2, 4(8), 673-685. ]Persian[

Perez-Blasco, J., Sales, A., Meléndez, J. C., &Mayordomo, T. (2016). The effects of mindfulness and self-compassion on improving the capacity to adapt to stress situations in elderly people living in the community. Clinical Gerontologist, 39(2), 90-103.

Pauley, G., & McPherson, S. (2010). The experience and meaning of compassion and self-compassion for individuals with depression or anxiety. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 83(2), 129-143.

Rasoolian, S., Dasht Bozorgi, Z. (2018). The Relationship Between Religious Adherence, Authentic Personality, Post-Traumatic Growth and Flexibility with Wisdom in Elderly Through the Mediation of Self-Coherence. Aging Psychology, 3(4), 229-241. ]Persian[

Shapira, B., Leah, M., &Myriam, S. (2010).The benefits of selfcompassion and optimism exercises for individuals vulnerable to depression. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5 (5), 377–389.

Sadock, B. J., Sadock, V. A. Kaplan and Sadock's synopsis of psychiatry: Behavioral sciences/clinical psychiatry: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2011.

Van Dam, N.T., Sheppard, S.C., Forsyth, J. P. &Earleywine, M. (2011). Self-compassion is a better pre dictor than mindfulness of symptom severity and quality of life in mixed anxiety and depression. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25(1), 123-130.

Varaee, P., Momeni, K., Moradi, A. (2018). Self-Compassion, Attitude Towards Religion and Death Anxiety: Predictors of Psychological Well-Being in the Elderly. 14(56), 445-460. ]Persian[

Yousefi, Z., Sharifi, Kh., Tagharrobi, Z., & Akbari, H. (2017). The effect of group reminiscence on happiness of the elderly. Evidence Based Care, 4 (3), 33-46. ]Persian[

Zeraati, M., Haghani Zemeidani, M., Khodadadi Sangdeh, J. (2016). The Comparison of Depression and Death Anxiety among Nursing Home Resident and Non-Resident Elderlies. IJN, 29 (102), 45-54. ]Persian[