نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مشاوره، دانشکده علوم تربیتی و روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد اصفهان (خوراسگان)، اصفهان، ایران.

3 استادیار گروه روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان با نیازهای خاص، دانشکده روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

4 عضو هیئت‌علمی گروه مهندسی پزشکی، دانشکده فنی و مهندسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران.

10.30486/jsrp.2019.1872455.1910

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، مقایسة اثربخشی واقعیت مجازی با نوروفیدبک بر کمبود توجه دانش‌آموزان دارای اختلال نقص توجه/بیش‌فعالی بود. روش پژوهش، نیمه‌آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون، پس‌آزمون، کنترل و پیگیری بود. جامعة آماری عبارت بود از دانش‌آموزان 7 تا 12 سال مقطع ابتدایی دارای اختلال نقص توجه/بیش‌فعالی شهر اصفهان در سال تحصیلی 98-97 که از بین آنها 48 نفر به شیوة هدفمند انتخاب و با رعایت معیارهای ورود به شیوة تصادفی به 3 گروه واقعیت مجازی، نوروفیدبک و کنترل (هر گروه 16 نفر) گمارده شدند. آزمون اسنپ–4 فرم والدین (1981) برای سنجش نقص توجه آزمودنی‌ها توسط مادران آنها تکمیل گردید. گروه آزمایش واقعیت مجازی تعداد 10 جلسة سه‌دقیقه‌ای مداخله نرم‌افزار واقعیت مجازی و گروه آزمایش نوروفیدبک تعداد 30 جلسة 45 دقیقه‌ای نوروفیدبک دریافت کردند. گروه کنترل هیچ مداخله‌ای دریافت نکرد. سپس از هر دو گروه پس‌آزمون و پیگیری به عمل آمد. نتایج نشان داد که واقعیت مجازی و نوروفیدبک در بهبود توجه مؤثر هستند، اثرات آنها در مرحلة پیگیری نیز ماندگار است و تفاوت بین میانگین‌های گروه‌های آزمایش با گروه کنترل معنی‌دار است (001/0>p). شواهد به‌دست‌آمده نشان می‌دهند که واقعیت مجازی و نوروفیدبک در بهبود توجه دانش‌آموزان مبتلا در هر دو مرحله مؤثر هستند و تفاوت بین گروه‌های واقعیت مجازی و نوروفیدبک معنی‌دار نیست (05/0<p).

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the effectiveness of virtual reality therapy with neurofeedback on attention deficit of ADHD elementary students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Tabrizi 1
  • Gholamreza Manshaee 2
  • Amir Ghamarani 3
  • Javad Rasti 4

1 Counseling Department, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan Branch (Khorasgan), Isfahan, Iran.

2 Associate professor, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) branch, Isfahan, Iran.

3 Department of Psychology and Education of Children with Special Needs, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

4 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of virtual reality with neurofeedback on attention deficit of students with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder. The research method was quasi-experimental with pretest, posttest, control and follow up design. The statistical population consisted of 7-12 years-old elementary school students with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder in Isfahan city in the school year of 1397-98 from which 48 subjects purposely selected based on entrance criteria and randomly assigned into virtual reality, neurofeedback and control groups (each 16 students). The SNAP-4 Parent Form (1981) was completed to measure students' attention deficit by their mothers. The virtual reality experiment group received 10 three-minute sessions of virtual reality software intervention and the neurofeedback experiment group received 30 neurofeedback sessions of 45 minutes each. The control group received no intervention. Then, post-test and after two months, follow-up measure were done. The results showed that virtual reality and neurofeedback are effective in improving attention, their effects are persistent in the follow-up phase, and the difference between the mean of the experimental and the control groups is significant (p <0.001). The obtained results show that virtual reality and neurofeedback are effective in improving the attention of affected students in both stages and the difference between virtual reality and neurofeedback groups is not significant (p <0.05).

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • virtual reality
  • neurofeedback
  • attention deficit
  • Elementary School Students
  • ADHD

Advokat, C., Lane, S., & Luo, C. (2011). College students with and without ADHD: comparison of self-report of medication usage, study habits, and academic achievement. Journal of Attention Disorders, 15(8), 656-66.

 

Anastasia, A. (1976). Psychometric. Translated by Mohamad Naghi Barahani. Tehran: Tehran University Press [Persian].

Bioulac, S., de Sevin, E., Sagaspe, P., Claret, A., Philip, P., Micoulaud-Franchi, J.A. and Bouvard, M.P. (2018). What do virtual reality tools bring to child and adolescent psychiatry? Encephale;44(3):280-285.

Blum,NJ., Shults, J., Harstad, E., Wiley, S., Augustyn, M., Meinzen-Derr, JK., Wolraich, ML. and Barbaresi, WJ. (2018). Common Use of Stimulants and Alpha-2 Agonists to Treat Preschool Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A DBPNet Study. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 2018 Sep;39(7):531-537.

Botella, C, Quero, S, Baños, RM, Perpiñá, C, Palacios, A García, Riva, G. (2004) Virtual reality and psychotherapy. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2004;99: 37–54.

Bussing, R., Fernandez, M., Harwood, M., Wei Hou, Garvan, C. W., Eyberg, S. M., & Swanson, J. M. (2008). Parent and teacher SNAP-IV ratings of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: psychometric properties and normative ratings from a school district sample. Assessment15(3), 317–328. 

Butcher, J. Mineka, S. & Hooley, J. (2014). Psychopathology Volume 1, Translated by Seyyed Mohammadi, Y. Tehran: Arasbaran Publication [Persian].

Collingwood, J. (2016). Side Effects of ADHD Medications. Psych Central. Retrieved on May 28, 2017, from https://psychcentral.com/lib/side-effects-of-adhd-medications.

Conners, K. (2002). Forty years of methylphenidate treatment in Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 6, 17-30.

Cortese, s., Panei, P., Arcieri, R., et al. (2015). Saftey of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine in Children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data from the Italian National ADHD Registery. CNS Drugs. 29(10):865-77.

Cotton, S. M., Kiely, P. M., Crewther, D. P., Thomson, B., Laycock, R., & Crewther, S. G. (2005). A normative and reliability study for the Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices for primary school aged children from Victoria, Australia. Personality and Individual Differences, 39(3), 647-659.

Fleischman, M. and Othmer, S. (2005). Case study Improvments in IQ score and Maintenance of Gains following EEG Biofeedback with Mildly Developmentally Delayed Twins. Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol,. 9(4).

Garrett, B., Taverner, T., Gromala, D., Tao, G., Cordingley, E., & Sun, C. (2018). Virtual Reality Clinical Research: Promises and Challenges. JMIR serious games, 6(4), e10839.

Hammond, D.C. and Kirk, L. (2008). First, Do No Harm: Adverse Effects and the Need for Practice Standards in Neurofeedback. Journal of Neurotherapy, 12(1)

Holmbeck, G. N., Greenley, R. N., & Franks, E. A. (2003). Developmental issues and considerations in research and practice: Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents (pp. 21−40). New York: Guilford Press.

Kewley, G., & Halliwell, N. (2014). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: clinical update. The British journal of general practice: the journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 64(621), e243–e245.

Lansbergen, M.M., van Dongen-Boomsma, M., Buitelaar, J. K., & Slaats-Willemse, D. (2011). ADHD and EEG-neurofeedback: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled feasibility study. Journal of Neural Transmission, 118(2), 275–284.

Lee, H., Li, Y., Yeh, S., Huang, Y., Wu, Z. and Du, Z. "ADHD assessment and testing system design based on virtual reality," 2017 2nd International Conference on Information Technology (INCIT), Nakhonpathom, 2017, pp.1-5.

Manshaee, Gh., Eslami, P. & Haj Ebrahimi, Z. (2018). The Effectiveness of Virtual Reality Exposure Therapy on Anxiety Reduction in People with Flight Phobia. Journal of Clinical and Personality Psychology. 17(Fall and Winter): 191-199 [Persian].

McNeil, CB. (2012). Treatment of noncompliance using parent-child interaction therapy. New York, NY: Springer.

Muhlberger, A., Jekel, K., Probst, T., Schecklmann, M., Conzelmann, A., Andreatta, M. et al. (2016). The influence of methylphenidate on hyperactivity and attention deficits in children with ADHD: a virtual classroom test. J Atten Disord 2016 May 13 [Epub].

Nolin, P., Stipanicic, A., Henry, M., Lachapelle, Y., Lussier-Desrochers, D. and Allain, P. (2016). ClinicaVR: Classroom-CPT: a virtual reality tool for assessing attention and inhibition in children and adolescents. Comput. Human Behav. 59, 327–333.

Putukian, M., Kreher, JB., Coppel,DB., Glazer, JL., McKeag, DB. and White, RD. (2011). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and the athlete: an American Medical Society for Sports Medicine position statement. Clin J Sport Med. 21(5):392-401.

Rasti, J., Manshaee, Gh. & Eslami, P. (2018). Build and validation of virtual reality software to counter with flight phobia. Knowledge and Research in Applied Psychology. 4, (74): 27-35 [Persian].

Riva, G., Wiederhold, BK., Mantovani,F. (2019). Neuroscience of Virtual Reality: From Virtual Exposure to Embodied Medicine. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw.22 (1):82-96.

Rizzo, A.A., Buckwalter, J.G., Bowerly, T., van der Zaag, C., Humphrey, L., Neumann, U., et al. (2000). The virtual classroom: a virtual reality environment for the assessment and rehabilitation of attention deficits. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 3, 483e499.

Rizzo, A.S., Sebastian Thomas Koenig, S.T., and Talbot, T.B. (2018). Clinical Virtual Reality: Emerging Opportunities for Psychiatry. Published Online: 18 Jul 2018.

Rosenberg, Scott. (2007). Dreaming in Code: Two Dozen Programmers, Three Years, 4,732 Bugs, and One Quest for Transcendent Software. Hardcover. Crown Publishing Group, a division of Random House, Inc., New York.

Sadat Madani, A. Heydari Nasab, L. Yaghoubi, H. & Rostami, R. (2015). The effect of neurofeedback combined with cognitive tasks on symptoms of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood. Clinical Psychology. 7(4): 59-70 [Persian].

Sadr al-Sadat, S.J., Hoshyari, Z., Zamani, R. & Sadr al-Sadat, L. (2007). Determining the Psychometric Properties of SNAP-IV Rating Scale, Parental Performance. Rehabilitation. 8(3): 59-65 [Persian].

Sajadi, S.A., Akhondpour, A. & Hashemian, P. (2014). The Effect of Neurofeedback on the Treatment of Learning Disorders of Mathematics in Elementary Third Grade Children. Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 57(5): 719-726 [Persian].

Smith, B.H., Waschbusch, D.A., Willoughby, M.T., & Evans, S. (2000). The efficacy, safety, and practicality of treatments for adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 3, 243−267.

Swanson J, Nolan W, Pelham WE. The SNAP rating scale for the diagnosis of attention deficit disorder. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles; 1981

Van Doren, J., Arns, M., Heinrich, H., Vollebregt,MA., Strehl, U., & K Loo. S. Sustained effects of neurofeedback in ADHD: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2018 Feb 14.

Vernon, DJ. (2005). Can neurofeedback training enhance performance? An evaluation of the evidence with implications for future research. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2005 Dec;30(4):347-64.

Visser,SN., Zablotsky, B., Holbrook, JR., Danielson, ML., Bitsko, RH. (2015). Diagnostic Experiences of Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Natl Health Stat Report. 3; (81):1-7.

Walker, D.J., Mason, O., Clemow D.B., and Day, K.A. (2015). Atomoxetine treatment in adults with attention‐deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Postgrad Med. 127:686–701. Journal of Neurotherapy, Vol. 12(1) 2008.