نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روان‌شناسی تربیتی، دانشگاه شیراز، شیراز، ایران.

چکیده

چکیده
هدف این پژوهش، بررسی اثربخشی آموزش مهارت همدلی، در ترکیب با مفهوم عدالت، بر بخشش بود. طرح این پژوهش نیمه‌آزمایشی پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعۀ آماری شامل همۀ دانشجویان مقطع لیسانس دانشگاه شیراز در سال تحصیلی 95-96 بودند. شرکت‌کنندگان پژوهش شامل 51 نفر دانشجو بود. گروه آزمایش با اجرای پیش‌آزمون به‌صورت هدفمند به دو گروه (17 نفره) باور به دنیای‌عادلانه بالا و باور به دنیای‌عادلانه پایین تقسیم شدند، همچنین یک گروه کنترل (17 نفر) بر اساس سن و جنس با این گروه‌ها همتا شدند. به‌منظور گردآوری داده‌ها از پرسشنامۀ بخشش (Malt و دیگران، 1998)، پرسشنامه باور به دنیای‌عادلانه (2005) Sutton & Douglas Dalbert, Lipkus, Sallay, & Goch (2001)  و همچنین برنامه آموزش مهارت همدلی (vaziri و lotfi kashani، 2011)، استفاده گردید. داده‌ها با استفاده از روش تحلیل آنوا در spss مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج تأییدکننده اثربخشی آموزش مهارت همدلی بر بخشش  با تأکید بر نقش باور به دنیای‌عادلانه بود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of Empathy Training on Forgiveness: Invastigation Role of Belief in the Just World

نویسندگان [English]

  • samira rostami 1
  • farhad khormaei 2

1 Educational psychology, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

2 Department of Educational psychology, Education & Psychology Faculty, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of empathy skills training, composed with the concept of justice, on forgiveness. Research method was quasi experimental pretest- posttest with control group. Population of this study consisted of all undergraduate students of Shiraz University in the academic year 2016-2017. Participants included 51 students. The experimental group was divided into two groups (17 persons) of high belief in a just world and low belief in a just world purposefully based on pretest, as well as a control group was matched with the experimental groups based on age and sex. In order to collect data Forgiveness Questionnaire (Malt et al., 1998), the Saturn & Douglas Belief in a just worldQuestionnaire (2005), Dalbert, Libkus, Sally, and Goch (2001), as well as the Empathy Training Program (Waziri and Lotfi Kashani, 2011) were used. Data was analyzed by ANOVA method in SPSS. The results confirmed the effectiveness of empathy training on forgiveness, with an emphasis on the role of belief in a just world.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • empathy
  • forgiveness
  • belief in a just world
Batson, C. D. (1991). The altruism question: Toward a Social Psychological Answer. Dalbert, C., & Dzuka, J. (2004). Belief in a just world, personality and well-being of adolescents. In The Justice Motive in Adolescence and Young Adulthood (pp. 115-130). Routledge.
Decety, J., & Moriguchi, Y. (2007). The empathic brain and its dysfunction in psychiatric populations: Implications for intervention across different clinical conditions. BioPsychoSocial medicine1(1), 22.
Decety, J., & Lamm, C. (2006). Human empathy through the lens of social neuroscience. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL6.
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behavioral and cognitive neuroscience reviews3(2), 71-100.
Dalbert, C., Lipkus, I. M., Sallay, H., & Goch, I. (2001). A just and an unjust world: Structure and validity of different world beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 561-577.
Davis, M. H. (2018). Empathy: A social psychological approach. Routledge.
Dalbert, C., & Filke, E. (2007). Belief in a personal just world, justice judgments, and their functions for prisoners. Criminal Justice and Behavior34(11), 1516-1527.
Exline, J. J., Worthington Jr, E. L., Hill, P., & McCullough, M. E. (2003). Forgiveness and
 
justice: A research agenda for social and personality psychology. Personality and social psychology Review7(4), 337-348.
Farrow, T. F., Zheng, Y., Wilkinson, I. D., Spence, S. A., Deakin, J. W., Tarrier, N., ... & Woodruff, P. W. (2001). Investigating the functional anatomy of empathy and forgiveness. Neuroreport12(11), 2433-2438.
Gibbs, J. C. (2003). Moral development and reality: Beyond the theories of Kohlberg and Hoffman. London: Sage.
Golparvar, M., Arizi, H., (2008). Concurrent validation of fair world beliefs questionnaires. Research Journal of Humanities, 25 (4), 193-212. [Persian]
Håkansson, J. (2003). Exploring the phenomenon of empathy. Department of Psychology [Psykologiska institutionen], Univ.
Hafer, C. L., & Olson, J. M. (1993). Beliefs in a just world, discontent, and assertive actions by working women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin19(1), 30-38.
Hoffman, M. L. (2001). Empathy and moral development: Implications for caring and justice. Cambridge University Press.
Kmiec, S. M. (2009). An analysis of sex differences in empathy and forgiveness.Kohut, H. (1984). How does analysis cure? Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kohut, H. (1984). How does analysis cure Chicago. IL: University of Chicago.
Konstam, V., Chernoff, M., & Deveney, S. (2001). Toward forgiveness: The role of shame, guilt anger, and empathy. Counseling and Values46(1), 26-39.
Lambert, A. J., Burroughs, T., & Nguyen, T. (1999). Perceptions of risk and the buffering hypothesis: The role of just world beliefs and right-wing authoritarianism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin25(6), 643-656.
Lerner, M. J., & Simmons, C. H. (1966). Observer's reaction to the" innocent victim": Compassion or rejection?. Journal of Personality and social Psychology4(2), 203.
Lerner, M. J., Miller, D. T., & Holmes, J. G. (1976). Deserving and the Emergence of Forms of Justice1. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 9, pp. 133-162). Academic Press.
Macaskill, A., Maltby, J., & Day, L. (2002). Forgiveness of self and others and emotional empathy. The Journal of social psychology142(5), 663-665.
Miller, A. J., Worthington Jr, E. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2008). Gender and forgiveness: A meta–analytic review and research agenda. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology27(8), 843-876.
Norton, L. (2009). The influence of moral beauty: the effects of empathy-building and elevation on forgiveness distinguished, Majors Thesis University of Virginia.
Thompson, L. Y., Snyder, C. R., Hoffman, L., Michael, S. T., Rasmussen, H. N., Billings, L. S., ... & Roberts, D. E. (2005). Dispositional forgiveness of self, others, and situations. Journal of personality73(2), 313-360.
Mehrabian, A., & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of personality.
Norton, L. (2009). The influence of moral beauty: the effects of empathy-building and elevation on forgiveness distinguished, Majors Thesis University of Virginia.
Nateghian, S. (2007). Forgiveness and marital satisfaction in men with war-related PTSD and their spouses. Master Thesis in Clinical Psychology. Shiraz university. [Persian]
Scott, J. C. (2008). Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. yale university Press.
Sutton R M, Douglas KM. (2005). Justice for all, or just for me? More evidence of the importance of the self-other distinction in just-world beliefs. Personality and Individual Differences.;39: 637-645.
Ulus,L, (2015). Empathy and Forgiveness Relationship, International Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Studies, 2(8), 98-103.
Vaziri, Sh., Lotfi Kashani, F., (2011). Quarterly Journal of Education.11.93-104. [Persian]
Wade, N. G., & Worthington Jr, E. L. (2003). Overcoming interpersonal offenses: Is forgiveness the only way to deal with unforgiveness?. Journal of Counseling & Development81(3), 343-353.