نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 روان‌شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

2 روانشناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی، دانشکده روان‌شناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبائی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

این پژوهش، باهدف تدوین بسته آموزشی بازی‌های مشارکتی و بررسی اثربخشی آن بر مهارت‌های اجتماعی کودکان با اختلال طیف اتیسم انجام شد. روش پژوهش از نوع طرح‌های نیمه آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون-پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. جامعۀ آماری این پژوهش، همۀ کودکان پسر 8 تا 12 ساله با اختلال طیف اتیسم مراکز درمانی و توانبخشی شهر تهران در سال 1397 بودند. در این پژوهش 20 کودک پسر با اختلال طیف اتیسم با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری در دسترس انتخاب و در دو گروه آزمایش (10 نفر) و کنترل (10 نفر) به شیوۀ تصادفی گمارش شدند. برای ارزیابی مهارت‌های اجتماعی از پرسشنامۀ نیمرخ اجتماعی بلینی استفاده شد. گروه آزمایش در 10 جلسه 45 دقیقه‌ای در طول 2 ماه بسته آموزشی را دریافت کردند درحالی‌که گروه کنترل چنین مداخله‌ای را دریافت نکردند. در پایان مجدداً هر دو گروه توسط پرسشنامۀ نیمرخ اجتماعی بلینی مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفتند. داده‌ها با استفاده از تحلیل کوواریانس مورد تجزیه‌وتحلیل قرار گرفت. نتایج این پژوهش نشان داد که آموزش بازی‌های مشارکتی موجب بهبود مهارت‌های اجتماعی کودکان با اختلال طیف اتیسم می‌شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Compilation of the Educational Package of Participatory Games and its Effectiveness on the Social Skills of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

نویسندگان [English]

  • roohallah fathabadi 1
  • Parviz i Sharif Daramad 1
  • Saeed Rezayi 2

1 Psychology of Exceptional Children, Allameh TabatabaiUniversity,Tehran,Iran

2 Assistant Professor in Psychology, Allameh Tabataba'i University,Teran,Iran.

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to formulate educational package of participatory games and its effectiveness on social skills of children with autism spectrum disorder. The research method was semi-experimental design with pretest-posttest design with control group. The statistical population of this study was all children aged 8 to 12 years old with autism spectrum disorders from Tehran health care and rehabilitation centers in 2018. In this study, 20 boys with autism spectrum disorder were selected by using available sampling method and were randomly assigned into two experimental (10 subjects) and control groups (10 subjects). The Social questionnaire was used to assess social skills. The experimental group received 10 sessions of 45 minutes training during the 2 months of training Package, while the control group did not receive such intervention. At the end, both groups were evaluated by the Bellini Social Profile Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using covariance analysis. The results of this study showed that coaching training improves the social skills of children with autism spectrum disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • autism spectrum disorder
  • participatory games
  • social skills
Abdullahi Baqarabadi, G (2016). The effectiveness of Lego therapy in increasing the social skills of children with high-level autism. Journal of Psychological Development,5(3), 153-144. [Persian]
Aghdasi, M. T. (2014). Evaluating social skills of female athlete students in several sports. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality and Sports13(4), 134-142.‌ [Persian]
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5®). American Psychiatric Pub.‌
Amini, Sh (2016). The effect of participatory games on the development of social skills of male students, Sixth Congress of the Iranian Psychological Association, Tehran, Iranian Psychological Association. [Persian]
Aminnejad, P; Zeidabadi, R. & Talebi, H. (2015). The effect of competitive participatory games on interpersonal relationships and group cohesion of children. The Second National Conference on New Achievements in Physical Education and Sports, Chabahar, Chabahar International University. [Persian]
Bellini, S., Peters, J. K., Benner, L., & Hopf, A. (2007). A meta-analysis of school-based social skills interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Remedial and Special Education28(3), 153-162.‌
Brett, E. (2013). Lego Therapy: Developing social competence in children with Asperger syndrome through collaborative Lego play.
‌Centre for Disease Control and Prevention. (2018). Identified prevalence of Autism spectrum disorder: ADDM network. 2000-2010, combining data from all site.
Cunningham, A. B., & Schreibman, L. (2008). Stereotypy in autism: The importance of function. Research in autism spectrum disorders2(3), 469-479.‌
Delano, M., & Snell, M. E. (2006). The effects of social stories on the social engagement of children with autism. Journal of positive behavior interventions8(1), 29-42.‌
Farhadiye, A.; Yazd Khasti, F. Arizi, H. (2015). The Effect of Group Theraplay on Children’s Interpersonal Interactions, Flexibility, and Emotional Perception, Social Psychology Research, 6 (22), 13-13. [Persian]
Haywood, K. M., & Getchell, N. (2019). Life span motor development. Human kinetics.‌
Jekan,M, Hosseini, AS; Mohammadi, M. and Salehi, M. (2013). The Effects of Ball Skills Training on Motor Development of Children with High Functioning Autism, Journal of Exceptional Children, 13 (2), 70-61. [Persian]
Johnson, C. P., & Myers, S. M. (2007). Identification and evaluation of children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics120(5), 1183-1215.‌
Kaale, A., Smith, L., & Sponheim, E. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of preschool‐based joint attention intervention for children with autism. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry53(1), 97-105.‌
Lu, L., Petersen, F., Lacroix, L., & Rousseau, C. (2010). Stimulating creative play in children with
 
autism through sandplay. The Arts in Psychotherapy37(1), 56-64.‌
Mehrjoo, P. (2011). Differences in play in exceptional and normal children, Journal of Exceptional Education, 2 (108), 55-48. [Persian]
Moghim-Islam P, Pourmohammadreza-Tajrishi M, Haghgou H. (2013). The Effect of Reciprocal Imitation Training on Social Skills of Children with Autism., Journal of Rehabilitation, 14 (7), 67-59. [Persian]
Naderi DarreheShouri,S, (2011). The effect of group play therapy on the social development of children with autism Ahvaz Paradise Center, Master Thesis, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz. [Persian]
pour Mohammad Reza Tajrishi, M.; Rajabi Shamami, B & Haghgoo, H (2013). The Pivotal Response Training (PRT) in Children with Autism Disorder, Journal of Exceptional Education, 8 (121), 61-56. [Persian]
Randy, L.S., & Michelle, J. (2008). Exploring the effects of social skills training on social skill development on student behavior. National Forum of Special Education Journal. 19(1), 1-8.
Rangani, A, Hemmati Alamdarloo, Q; Shojaei, S. & Asghari Nikah, M (2015). The effectiveness of puppetry play therapy intervention on social skills of male students with autism, Quarterly of Psychology of Exceptional Individuals, 5(20),73-93. [Persian]
Rezayi,s(2017).Designing the social skills training program and investigating its effectiveness on social competence of children with High function autistic (HFA) and non-verbal learning disorder, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 6(4),82-67. [Persian]
Samadi, S. A., & McConkey, R. (2015). Screening for autism in Iranian preschoolers: Contrasting M-CHAT and a scale developed in Iran. Journal of autism and developmental disorders45(9), 2908-2916.‌
Samadi, S. A., Mahmoodizadeh, A., & McConkey, R. (2012). A national study of the prevalence of autism among five-year-old children in Iran. Autism16(1), 5-14.‌
Sobhani, F (2008). Participatory games. Tehran: Education Publications. [Persian]
Sohrabi, T (2011). Investigating the effect of group games on social skills of fifth grade elementary students, Master Thesis, Allameh Tabatabai University. [Persian]
Stanton-Chapman, T. L., & Snell, M. E. (2011). Promoting turn-taking skills in preschool children with disabilities: The effects of a peer-based social communication intervention. Early Childhood Research Quarterly26(3), 303-319.‌
Stanton‐Chapman, T. L., Denning, C. B., & Jamison, K. R. (2008). Exploring the effects of a social communication intervention for improving requests and word diversity in preschoolers with disabilities. Psychology in the Schools45(7), 644-664.‌
Tajdini S, Pirkhaefi A (2015). EFFECTS OF LEARNING GAMES ON IMPROVING COMMUNICATION SKILLS AND SOCIAL RHYTHMIC AUTISTIC CHILDREN OF URMIA CITY, Urmia Medical Journal,22 (4), 28-267. [Persian]
Uren, N., & Stagnitti, K. (2009). Pretend play, social competence and involvement in children aged 5–7 years: The concurrent validity of the Child‐Initiated Pretend Play Assessment. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal56(1), 33-40.‌
White, S. W., Keonig, K., & Scahill, L. (2007). Social skills development in children with autism spectrum disorders: A review of the intervention research. Journal of autism and developmental disorders37(10), 1858-1868.‌
World Health Organization (2016). Questions and answers about autism spectrum disorders (ASD).Retrieved March 20, 2016 from http://www.who.int/features/qa/85/en.