نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

2 دانشیار گروه روان‌شناسی بالینی، دانشگاه خوارزمی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

پژوهش حاضر با هدف مدل‌یابی روابط ساختاری مهارت‌های ذهن‌آگاهی، تنظیم هیجان و حساسیت اضطرابی با اضطراب اجتماعی نوجوانان انجام شد. جامعۀ پژوهش شامل همۀ نوجوانان 12 تا 14 سال شهر اصفهان در سال تحصیلی 1395-1394 بود که درنهایت 480 نفر از آن‌ها بر اساس فرمول برآورد حجم نمونه کلاین، به‌طور تصادفی به‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب شدند. برای گردآوری داده‌ها از چک‌لیست تنظیم هیجانی (Shields, & Cicchetti,1998)، پرسش‌نامۀ اضطراب اجتماعی (La Gerca & Lopez, 1998)، مقیاس ذهن‌آگاهی و پذیرش کودکان (Baer, Smith, Gregory, Allen, 2005) و پرسشنامه حساسیت اضطرابی (Silverman, Fleisig, Rabian, Peterson, 1991) استفاده گردید. تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از نرم‌افزارهای AMOS و SPSS و به روش تحلیل مسیر انجام شد. ضرایب همبستگی نشان داد که بین تنظیم هیجان و اضطراب اجتماعی (p=0/001)، ذهن‌آگاهی و اضطراب اجتماعی (p=0/034) و حساسیت اضطرابی و اضطراب اجتماعی (p=0/001) به‌طور مستقیم همبستگی معناداری وجود داشت (p=0/001). ضرایب رگرسیون نشان داد که حساسیت اضطرابی با میانجیگری تنظیم هیجان به میزان ۱/۰ شدت اضطراب اجتماعی را پیش‌بینی می‌کند (p=0/001). شدت اضطراب اجتماعی از طریق ذهن‌آگاهی و با میانجیگری تنظیم هیجان به میزان ۰۴/۰ قابل پیش‌بینی بود. به‌طورکلی نتایج پژوهش نشان داد رابطه معناداری بین حساسیت اضطرابی، ذهن‌آگاهی، تنظیم هیجانی و اضطراب اجتماعی وجود دارد و همچنین حساسیت اضطرابی و ذهن‌آگاهی از طریق تنظیم هیجان قادر به پیش‌بینی معنادار اضطراب اجتماعی در نوجوانان دارای اختلال اضطراب اجتماعی هستند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Structural equation modeling of mindfulness skills, emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity with social anxiety in Adolescent

نویسندگان [English]

  • marziye esmailian 1
  • shahram mohamadkhani 2
  • jafar Hasani 2

1 Clinical Psychology, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.

2 Associate Professor, Clinical Psychology, University of Kharazmi, Tehran, Iran.

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the structural relationships between mindfulness skills, emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity with social anxiety in adolescents. The study population included all adolescents 12-14 years old in Isfahan city in the academic year 2015-2016, and finally 480 of them were randomly selected as the sample based on the Klein sample size estimation formula. For data gathering the following questionnaire were use. Emotion regulation checklist ((Shields, & Cicchetti, 1998)) , social anxiety (La Gerca & Lopez, 1998), child acceptance mindfulness measure (Baer, Smith, Gregory, Allen, 2005) and Anxiety Sensitivity Inventory (Silverman, Fleisig, Rabian, & Peterson, 1991). Data analysis was run by SPSS and AMOS software and path analysis method. Results showed significant relationships between social anxiety and emotion regulation (r=-0/22), mindfulness and social anxiety (r=-0/11) and anxiety sensitivity and social anxiety (r=0/41). Regression coefficients indicated that anxiety sensitivity predicted social anxiety by mediating role of emotion regulation (β=0/1) and also mindfulness skills were able to predict social anxiety by emotion regulation (β=0/04). So result demonstrated that emotion regulation is a good mediator between anxiety sensitivity and mindfulness with social anxiety.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Social anxiety
  • anxiety sensitivity
  • emotion regulation
  • mindfulness skills
Ahmadvand, Z, Heidariansab, L & Shairi, M. R. (2012). Explaining psychological well-being based on the components of mindfulness. health Psychology. 2 (2). 60-69. [persian]
Akbari, E, Beyrami, M, Azimi, Z, Qasempour, A. (2012). Evaluation of anxiety sensitivity, anxiety and components of emotional regulation in students with clinical symptoms of social anxiety and normal. Journal of Clinical Psychology Studies, 8, 44-62. [persian]
Allan, N. P., Cooper, D., Oglesby, M. E., Short, N. A.,Saulnier, K. G., & Schmidt, N. B. (2018). Lower- order anxiety sensitivity and intolerance of uncertainty dimensions operate as specific vulnerabilities for social anxiety and depression within a hierarchical model. Journal of Anxiety Disorders,53, 91–99.
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. Fifth edition. Washington, DC London, England
Anderson, R.E., & Hope, D.A. (2009). The relationship among social phobia, physiological reactivity, and Anxiety sensitivity in an adolescent population. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 18-26.
Andrews, G., Henderson, S., & Hall, W. (2001). Prevalence, comorbidity, disability and serce utilization. Overview of the Australian National Mental Health Survey. British Journal of Psychiatry. 178, 145–153.
Baer, R., Smith, T. Gregory, Allen, B. K (2005). Assessment of Mindfulness by self-Report the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills. Assessment, 11(3), 191-206.
Bockstaele, B. V., Bogels, S. M. (2014). Social Anxiety (Third Edition), 2014, Pages 729-751.
Bögels SM, Sijbers GFVM, Voncken M. (2006). Mindfulness and task concentration training for social phobia: a pilot study. J Cogn Psychother. 20(1):33-44.
Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Acceptability and suppression of negative emotion in anxiety and mood disorders. Emotion, 6, 587–595.
Carthy, T., Horesh, N., Apter, A., Edge, M. D., Gross, J. (2010). Emotional reactivity and cognitive regulation in anxious children. Behavior Research and Therapy. 48, 384–393.
 
Deacon Brett, J., Jonathan S., Carol M., & David, F. (2003). The Anxiety Sensitivity Index - Revised: psychometric properties and factor structure in two nonclinical samples. Behavior Research and Therapy, 41, 1427–1449.
Deacon, B., & Abramowitz, J. (2006). Anxiety sensitivityand its dimensions across the anxiety disorders.Journal of Anxiety Disorders,20, 837–857.
Eifert, G. H., Forsyth, J. P., Hayes, S. (2006). Acceptance and Commitment Therapy for anxiety disorders: a practitioner’s treatment guide using mindfulness, acceptance, and values based behavior change strategies. Oakland: New Harbinger Publications.
Eley, T. C., Stirling, L., Ehlers, A., Gregory, A. M., & Clark, D. M. (2004). Heartbeat perception, panic/somatic symptoms and anxiety sensitivity in children. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 42, 439–448.
Esmaeilian, N., Dehghani, M., Tahmasian, K. (2015). Investigation of psychometric properties and factor structure of Child and Adolescent Mindfulness Scale (CAMM). Presented at the Second National Congress of Child and Adolescent Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran. [persian]
Esmaeilian, N., Dehghani, M., Fallah, S. (2016). Investigating the psychometric properties of children and adolescents' emotional regulation checklist. Jornal of Advances in Clinical Psychology. 2(1). 15-34. [persian]
Feldman, G., Hayes, A., Kumar, S., Greeson, J., & Laurenceau, J.-p. (2007). Mindfulness and emotion regulation: The development and initial validation of the cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised (CAMSR). Journal of Psychopatbology and Behavioral Assessmenr, 29(3), pp. 177-190.
Goldin, P. R., Manber-Ball, T., Werner, K., Heimberg, R., & Gross, J. J. (2009). Neural mechanisms of cognitive reappraisal of negative self-beliefs in social anxiety disorder. Biological Psychia­try, 66(12), 1091–1099. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2009.07.014.
Greco, L. A., Dew, S. E., & Bear, S. (2005). Acceptance, mindfulness, and related processes in childhood: Measurement issues, clinical relevance, and future directions. In S. E. Dew & R. Baer (Chairs), Measuring Acceptance, Mindfulness, and Related Processes: Empirical Findings and Clinical Applications across Child, Adolescent, and Adult Samples. Symposium presented at the Association for Behavior and Cognitive Therapies.
Gross, J. J. (2002). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10 (6), 214–219.
Gross, J. (2007). Handbook of emotion regulation. The Guilford Press.
Hooman, H. (2006). Analysis of multivariate data in behavioral research. Tehran: Farhang courier. [persian]
Hooman, H. (2009). Structural equation modeling using LISREL software. Tehran: Samt. [persian]
Hambour VK, Zimmer-gembeck MJ, Clear S, Rowe S, Avdagic E. Emotion regulation and mindfulness in adolescents: Conceptual and empirical connection and associations with social anxiety symptoms. Personality and Individual Differences. 2018;134: 7–12.
Inderbitzen, H. M., and wailers, K. S. (2000). Social Anxiety scale for Adolescents: Normative Data and further Evidence of construet vaildity. Journal of clinical child psychology, 29, 360 – 381.
Ivanovski, B., & Malhi, G. (2007). The Psychological and neurophysiological concomitants of mindfulness form meditation. Acta neuro psychiatrica, 19, 76-91.
Jafari Fard, S; Toghyani, M.; Motamedi, H. (2013). The effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy based on the presence of group mind on anxiety symptoms in patients with social phobia. Thought and Behavior in Clinical Psychology, 8(30), 67-76. [persian].
John, O. P., & Gross, J. J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and lifespan development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301–1334.
Jocobs, M., Snow, J., Geraci, M., Vythilingam, M., Blair, R. J. R., Charney, D. S., Pine, D. S., & Balir, K. S. (2008). Association between level of emotional intelligence and severity of anxiety in generalized social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 22, 1487–1495.
Kabat-Zinn, J. (2003) Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Context: Past, Present and Future. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. V 10, 144-156.
Khakpoor, S. Saed, O. & Shahsavar, A. (2019). The concept of “Anxiety sensitivity” in social anxiety disorder presentations, symptomatology, and treatment: A theoretical perspective. Cogent Psychology, 6: 1617658. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311908.2019.1617658
Kashdan, T. B., Barrios, V., Forsyth, J., & Steger, M. F. (2006). Experiential avoidance as a generalized psychological vulnerability: comparisons with coping and emotion regulation strategies. Behavior research and therapy. 44, 1301-1320.
Keogh, K. L., Dillon, C., Georgiou, C., & Hunt, C. (2001). “Selective attentional biases for physical threat in physical anxiety sensitivity”. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 15, 299-315.
Kaviani, H., Hatami, N., Shafieabadi, A. E. (2009). The impact of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on the quality of life in non-clinically depressed people. Advances in Cognitive Science,10(4),39-48. [persian].
La Greca, A. M. & Lopez, N. (1998). Social anxiety among adolescents: Linkages with peer relations and friendships. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 26, 83-94.
Mennin, D. S., Heimberg, R. G., Turk, C. L., & Fresco, D. M. (2002). Applying an emotion regulation framework to integrative approaches to generalized anxiety disorder. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 9, 85–90.
Ostvar, P., Razavieh, A. (2013). The Study of Psychometric Properties of Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) for Use in Iran. Journal of Psychological methods and models. 3(12), 69-78. [persian].
Panayiotou, G., Karekla, M., & Panayiotou, M. (2014).Direct and indirect predictors of social anxiety: Therole of anxiety sensitivity, behavioral inhibition,experiential avoidance and self-consciousness.Comprehensive Psychiatry,55, 1875–1882.
Peerayuth. Sh. (2014). Benefits of Mindfulness Meditation on Emotional Intelligence, General Self-Efficacy, and Perceived Stress: Evidence from Thailand. Journal of Spirituality in Mental Health. 16, pp. 171-192.
Rector, N., Shimizu, K., & Leybman, M. (2007). Anxiety sensitivity within the anxiety disorders: Disorder-specific sensitivities and depression comorbidity. Behavior Research and Therapy. 45, 1967–1975.
Rodebaugh, T. L., & Heimberg, R. G. (2008). Chapter 9 Emotion Regulation and the Anxiety Disorders: Adopting a Self-Regulation Perspective. Springer.
Sackl-Pammer, P., Jahn, R., Özlü-Erkilic, Z. et al. (2019). Social anxiety disorder and emotion regulation problems in adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health 13, 37. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13034-019-0297-9
Salters-Pedneault, K., Roemer, L., Tull, M. T., Rucker, L. & Mennin, D. S. (2006). Evidence of broad deficits in emotion regulation associated with chronic worry and generalized anxiety disorder. Cognitive Ther Res, 30, 469–80.
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation in school-age children: The development of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33, 906-916.
Shields, A., & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The role of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 381-395
Silverman, W. K., Fleisig, W., Rabian, B., & Peterson, R. A. (1991). Child­hood Anxiety Sensitivity Index. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 20, 162– 168.
Stein, D. J., Lim, C. C., Roest, A. M., et al. (2017). Thecross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disor-der: Data from the world mental health surveyinitiative. BMC Medicine,15, 143.
Taylor, S. (2014). Anxiety sensitivity: Theory, research, andtreatment of the fear of anxiety. New York, NY:Routledg
 Thayer, J., Friedman, B.H., Borkovec, T.D. (1996). Autonomic characteristics of generalized anxiety disorder and worry. Biological Psychiatry, 39(4), 255–266.
Tull, M. T., Stipelman, B. A., Salters-Pedneault, K., & Gratz, K. l. (2009). An examination of recent non-clinical panic attacks, panic disorder, anxiety sensitivity, and emotion regulation difficulties in the prediction of generalized anxiety disorder in an analogue sample. Journal of anxiety disorders, 23, 275- 282.
Vernberg, E. M., Abwender, D. A., Ewell, K. K., & Beery, S. H. (1992). Social anxiety and peer relationships in early adolescence: A prospective analysis. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 21, 189-196.
Wells, A. (2000). Emotional disorders and metacognition: innovative cognitive therapy. Chichester, UK: Wiley.
Wilson, J. E., MacLeod, C., Mathews, A., & Rutherford, E. (2006). The causal role of interpretive bias in anxiety reactivity. J Abnorm Psych, 115, 103–11.
Xueming B, Song X & Feng K. (2015). Dispositinal Mindfulness and Persived Stress: The role of Emotinal Intelligence. Personality and individual differences. 78, pp. 48- 52.
Zeidan, F., Johnson, S.K., Diamond, B. J., David. Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2012). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training. Conscious Cognitive. (19):597-605.
Zvolensky, M. J., Feldner, M. T., Leen-Feldner, E. W., BonnMiller, M. O., McLeish, A. C., & Gregor, K. (2004). Evaluating the role of anxiety sensitivity in smoking outcome expectancies among regular smokers. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 28, 473–486.