نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسنده

استادیار گروه علوم تربیتی دانشگاه فرهنگیان کردستان، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، بررسی نقش ناهمخوانی بین عزت ­نفس آشکار و ناآشکار در پیش­بینی نشانه‌های افسردگی بود. روش پژوهش همبستگی و جامعۀ آماری تمام دانشجویان کارشناسی پیوستۀ دانشگاه فرهنگیان کردستان در سال تحصیلی 98-1397 به تعداد 956 نفر بود که از میان آن‌ها به روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی منظم 274 نفر انتخاب شدند و به پرسشنامۀ افسردگی (Beck, Steer, & Brown,1956) عزت نفس (Rosenberg,1965) و ترجیح حروف الفبای نام (Nuttin, 1987) پاسخ دادند. اطلاعات 253 نفر با استفاده از تحلیل رگرسیون چندمتغیری سلسله‌مراتبی و نرم افزار spss تحلیل شد. نتایج نشان داد که ضریب همبستگی چندمتغیری برای متغیر پیش­بین عزت ­نفس آشکار با نشانه‌های افسردگی برابر با 63/0- است که در سطح 001/0 معنا­دار است (58/0= β)، اما این پیش­بینی برای عزت ­نفس ناآشکار معنا­دار نیست. همچنین همبستگی چندمتغیری برای جهت و مقدار ناهمخوانی بین عزت ­نفس آشکار و ناآشکار با نشانه‌های افسردگی برابر با 93/0 است که در سطح 001/0 معنا­دار است 51/0= β). بر اساس این یافته­ها، افرادی که عزت ­نفس آسیب‌دیده‌ای دارند؛ سطح بالاتری از نشانه‌های افسردگی و افرادی که دارای عزت­نفس دفاعی‌اند؛ سطح پایین‌تری از نشانه‌های افسردگی را بروز می­دهند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Role of discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem in prediction of depression symptoms in students of University

نویسنده [English]

  • Bahram Maleki

Assistant Professor, Department of Educational Sciences, Farhangian University, Kurdistan, Iran

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem, with depression symptoms. The research method was descriptive and the statistical population was all of the undergraduate students at Farhangian University of Kurdistan in the academic year 2018-2019 with the quantity of 956 students. Among them, using systematic random sampling, 274 subjects were randomly selected and responded to Beck, Steer & Brown Depression Inventory (1996), Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (1965), and Name Initial Preferences Task Nuttin (1987). The data of 253 subjects were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate regression analysis. The results showed that multivariate correlation coefficient for predictor variable of explicit self-esteem was -0.63 which is significant at (P <0.001, β= 0.58), but this prediction does not significant for implicit self-esteem. also, multivariate correlation coefficient for direction and magnitude of discrepancy between explicit and implicit self-esteem with depression symptoms was 0.93 which is significant at (P <0.001, β= 0.51). Based on these findings, those who have damaged self-esteem; show a higher level of depression symptoms and those with defense self-esteem; show a lower level of depression symptoms.  

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • depression symptoms
  • discrepancy
  • explicit self-esteem
  • implicit self-esteem. students
 
Alizadeh, G., Kordnoghabi, R., Rashid, K., gholizadeh, Z. (2018). The Impact of Upper Alpha Neurofeedback Training on Executive Functions of the Female Students of Kurdistan University with Academic Burnout Syndrome and Depression Symptoms. Quarterly of Clinical Psychology Studies. 8(30): 163-188. [Per]
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing.
Beck, A. T., Steer, R., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory II: Manual. Boston: Hartcourt Brace.
Besharat, M, A. (2004). Investigation of psychometric properties of Beck Depression Inventory. Research report: University of Tehran. [Per]
Bozorgi, A., Asadi, S., Abedini, M & Avarideh., S. (2019). Evaluating Communication Model of Mindfulness with Happiness According to the Role of Self-Compassion, Self-Esteem and
 
Emotion Regulation in Student. New psychological research, 56(14): 271-292. [Per]
Clasen, P. C., Fisher, A. J., & Beevers, C. G. (2015). Mood-reactive self-esteem and depression vulnerability: Person-specific symptom dynamics via smart phone assessment. PLoS One, 10(7):1-16.
Creemers, D., Scholte, R., Engels, R., Prinstein, M., & Wiers, R. (2012). Implicit and explicit self-esteem as concurrent predictors of suicidal ideation depressive symptoms, and loneliness. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 43(2): 638- 646.
Creemers, D. M., Scholte, R. J., Engels, R. E., Prinstein, M. J., & Wiers, R. W. (2013). Damaged self-esteem is associated with internalizing problems. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(2): 152-158.
First, M. B., Williams, J. B. W., Karg, R. S., & Spitzer, R. L. (2015). Structured clinical interview for DSM-5 research version (SCID-5 for DSM-5, research version; SCID-5- RV, version 1.0.0). Arlington: American Psychiatric Association.
Franck, E., De Raedt, R., & De Houwer, J. (2007). Implicit but not explicit self-esteem predicts future depressive symptomatology. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45 (6): 2448-2455.
Ganji, H. (2005). Personality evaluation, Savalan Publishing, Tehran. [Per]
Higgins, E, T. (1998). When do self-discrepancies have specific relations to emotions, J Pers Social Psychol, 77(6): 13-17.
Hiller, T.S., Steffens, M. C., Ritter, V., & Stangier, U. (2017). On the context dependency of implicit self-esteem in social anxiety disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 57 (5): 118-125.
Joshan Lu, M., and Qaedi, Gh. (2008). Review of the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg scale in Iran. Shahed University Bi-Quarterly, 31 (1): 49-56. [Per]
Kim, H. S., & Moore, M. T. (2019). Symptoms of depression and the discrepancy between implicit and explicit self-esteem. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 63(2): 1-5.
Korrelboom, K., Maarsingh, M., & Huijbrechts, I. (2012). Competitive memory training (COMET) for treating low self-esteem in patients with depressive disorders: A randomized clinical trial. Depression and Anxiety, 29(2): 102–110.
Krejcie, R.V., & Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining Sample Size for Research Activities. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 30(3): 607-610.
Leeuwis, F. H., Koot, H. M., Creemers, D. H. M., & van Lier, P. A. C. (2015). Implicit and explicit self-esteem discrepancies, victimization and the development of late childhood internalizing problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 43(5): 909–919.
Maleki, B. (2018). The Role of Implicit and Explicit Self-esteem in Predicting Depression Syndromes, Suicidal Ideation and Loneliness, Psychological Studies, 14(4): 91-106. [Per]
Maleki, B., Alipoor, A., Zare, H., Shaghaghi, F. (2014). Preliminary psychometric properties of Name Initial Preferences Task (IPT) for implicit self-esteem. Educational Measurement, 5(17): 101-123. [Per]
Nuttin, J. M. (1987). Affective consequences of mere ownership: The name letter effect in twelve European languages. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17 (2): 381- 402.
Rajabi, G., and Bohlool, N. (2005). Assessing the reliability and validity of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale of first year students of Shahid Chamran University. Journal of Educational and Psychological Research, 3 (8): 33-48. [Per]
Rajabi, G., and karju kasmai, S. (2012). Psychometric properties of a Persian language version of the beck depression inventory second edition. Educational Measurement, 10 (3 in a row): 139-157. [Per]
Rice, F., Riglin, L., Lomax, T., Souter, E., Potter, R., Smith, D.J., Thapar, A.K. & Thapar, A. (2019). Adolescent and adult differences in major depression symptom profiles. Journal of Affective Disorders, 243(15): 175-181.
Romero, N., Sanchez, A., Vázquez, C., & Valiente, C. (2016). Explicit self-esteem mediates the relationship between implicit self-esteem and memory biases in major depression. Psychiatry Research, 242(1): 336–344.
Rosenberg, M. (1965). Society and the adolescent self-image. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Smeijers, D., Vrijsen, J., Oostrom, I., Isaac, L., Speckens, A., Becker, & Rinck, M. (2017). Implicit and explicit self-esteem in remitted depressed patients. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 54(1): 301-306.
Sowislo, J. F., Orth, U., & Meier, L. L. (2014). What constitutes vulnerable self-esteem? Comparing the prospective effects of low, unstable, and contingent self-esteem on depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(4): 737–753.
Tuijl, L., Verwoerd, J., & Jong, P. (2018). Influence of sad mood induction on implicit self-esteem and its relationship with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 60(1): 104–110.
Van Tuijl, L. A., de Jong, P. J., Sportel, B. E., & de Hullu, E. (2014). Implicit and explicit self-esteem and their reciprocal relationship with symptoms of depression and social anxiety: A longitudinal study in adolescents. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 45(1): 113–121.
Waite, P., McManus, F., & Shafran, R. (2012). Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem: A preliminary randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 43(4): 1049–1057.
Wegener, I., Geiser, F., Alfter, S., Mierke, J., Imbierowicz, K., Kleiman, A., Koch, A., & Conrad, R. (2015). Changes of explicitly and implicitly measured self-esteem in the treatment of major depression: Evidence for implicit self-esteem compensation. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 58(1): 57–67.
Wilson, T. D., & Dunn, E. W. (2004). Self-knowledge: Its limits, value, and potential for improvement. Annual Review of Psychology, 55(2): 493–518.
Zemestani1, M., Fazeli Nikoo, Z. (2019). Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on decrease of symptoms of depression, rumination and emotion regulation in pregnant women. Quarterly of Applied Psychology, 1(49), 119-139. [Per]
Zabeti, A., Taqiloo, P., and tageri, b. (2017). The mediating role of self-esteem in the relationship between time perspective and quality of life. Quarterly of Applied Psychology, 11 (41): 85-101. [Per]