نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه روان‌شناسی، واحد اهواز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، اهواز، ایران

چکیده

هدف این پژوهش، مقایسۀ تأثیر آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی و مدیریت زمان بر اضطراب امتحان و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی در دانش‌آموزان دختر دوم متوسطه بود. جامعۀ آماری پژوهش شامل کلیۀ دانش‌آموزان دختر دورۀ دوم متوسطه شهر بهبهان در سال تحصیلی 98-1397بودند که با استفاده از روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند، 45 نفر از آنان انتخاب و به صورت تصادفی در دو گروه آزمایشی و یک گروه کنترل (هر گروه 15 دانش‌آموز) قرار گرفتند. برای گردآوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامۀ اضطراب امتحان (Spielberger, Gonzalez, Taylor, Algaze & Anton, 1978)و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی (Jing & Morgan, 1999) استفاده شد. روش پژوهش از نوع آزمایشی با طرح پیش‌آزمون- پس‌آزمون با گروه کنترل بود. گروه‌های آزمایشی تحت آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی (6 جلسۀ 90 دقیقه‌ای) و مدیریت زمان (7 جلسۀ 60 دقیقه‌ای) قرار گرفتند؛ اما گروه کنترل هیچ‌گونه مداخله­ای دریافت نکردند. داده‌ها با استفاده از آزمون آماری تحلیل کوواریانس مورد تجزیه و تحلیل قرار گرفتند. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که هر دو آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی و مدیریت زمان، بر کاهش اضطراب امتحان و خودکارآمدی تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان اثربخش بودند(01/0p<). همچنین نتایج نشان داد، آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی نسبت به مدیریت زمان، دارای تأثیر بیشتری بر کاهش اضطراب امتحان و افزایش خودکارآمدی تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان بود (01/0p<). می‌توان از آموزش راهبردهای فراشناختی در کاهش اضطراب امتحان و افزایش خودکارآمدی تحصیلی در دانش‌آموزان بهره گرفت.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the efficacy metacognitive strategies and time management training on test anxiety and academic self-efficacy in Secondary School Female Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • leila shoaei
  • alireza heidarie
  • saeed bakhtiarpour
  • parviz askari

Department of Psychology, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

چکیده [English]

The purpose of this study was to compare of the effect of metacognitive strategies and time management training on test anxiety and academic self-efficacy in Secondary School Female Students. The statistical population of this study included all female student high school Behbahan City in year academic 2018-2019, using a targeted sampling method, 45 of them were selected and randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group (each group of 15 Student). To collect data Test Anxiety Questionnaire of Spielberger, Gonzalez, Taylor, Algaze & Anton (1978) and Academic Self-Efficacy Questionnaire of Jing & Morgan (1999). This quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest design with control group. The experimental groups underwent metacognitive strategies (6 sessions 90 minutes) and time management training (7 sessions 60 minutes), but the control group received no training. Data were analysed using covariance analysis. The results showed that metacognitive strategies and time management training was effective to decrease test anxiety and increase academic self-efficacy in students (p<0.01). Also, the results showed that metacognitive strategies had a greater effect than time management training on decrease test anxiety and increase academic self-efficacy in students (p<0.01). It can be used to metacognitive strategies training to decrease test anxiety and increase academic self-efficacy in students.
.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Metacognitive strategies
  • time management
  • test anxiety & academic self-efficacy
Alt, D. (2015). Assessing the contribution of a constructivist learning environment to academic self-efficacy in higher education. Learning Environments Research, 18(1), 47-67.
Aydın, S. (2015). An analysis of the relationship between high school students' self-efficacy, metacognitive strategy use and their academic motivation for learn biology. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 4(2), 53-59.
Bahadorikhosroshahi, J. (2018). The Effectsof Training Time Management Skills on Self-concept and Academic Buoyancy among High School Students. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 13(49), 151-174. [Persian].
Bandak, Mosa., Maleki, Hassan., Abbaspour, Abbas. & Ebrahimighavam, Soghr. (2016). Investigating the Impact of Life Skills Training on Academic Self–efficacy, Journal of Educational Psychology, 11(37), 19-33. [Persian].
Bandura, A. (2006). Guide for constructing self-efficacy scales. Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents, 5(1), 307-337.

 Barbara, HoffEsbjørn.; Nicoline, NormannBianca.; Munkebo, Christiansen Marie. & Louise, Reinholdt-Dunne. (2018). The efficacy of group metacognitive therapy for children (MCT-c) with generalized anxiety disorder: An open trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 53, 16-21

Burton, B. N., & Baxter, M. F. (2019). The Effects of the Leisure Activity of Coloring on Post-Test Anxiety in Graduate Level Occupational Therapy Students. The Open Journal of Occupational Therapy7(1), 7.
Carsley, D., & Heath, N. L. (2019). Evaluating the effectiveness of a mindfulness coloring activity for test anxiety in children. The Journal of Educational Research, 112(2), 143-151.
Cerezo, R., Fernández, E., Amieiro, N., Valle, A., Rosário, P., & Núñez, J. C. (2019). Mediating Role of Self-efficacy and Usefulness Between Self-regulated Learning Strategy Knowledge and its Use. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English ed.), 24(1), 1-8.
Chen, J. H., Björkman, A., Zou, J. H., & Engström, M. (2019). Self–regulated learning ability, metacognitive ability, and general self-efficacy in a sample of nursing students: A cross-sectional and correlational study. Nurse education in practice, 37, 15-21.
Cikrikci, Ö., & Odaci, H. (2016). The determinants of life satisfaction among adolescents: The role of metacognitive awareness and self-efficacy. Social Indicators Research, 125(3), 977-990.
Drago, A., Rheinheimer, D. C., & Detweiler, T. N. (2018). Effects of locus of control, academic self-efficacy, and tutoring on academic performance. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 19(4), 433-451.
Garcia R, Falkner K, Vivian R. Systematic literature review: Self-Regulated Learning strategies using e-learning tools for Computer Science. Comput Educ. 2018;123:150-63.
Ghadampour, E., Khalili, Z., Rezaeian, M. (2018). Effect of Teaching Meta-Cognition Package (Critical Thinking, Problem Solving and Meta-Cognition Approaches) on the Motivation and the Scholastic Achievement of Male Students of First Grade High School. Journal of Instruction and Evaluation, 11(42), 71-90. [Persian].
Gordanshekan, M., Yarmohammadian, M. H. & Ajami, S. (2010). The Effect of Teaching Meta-cognition Package on Self-Directed Learning in Medical Records Students of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Iranian Journal of Medical Education, 10(2), 131-140. [Persian].
Graham, K. J., Bohn-Gettler, C. M., & Raigoza, A. F. (2019). Metacognitive Training in Chemistry Tutor Sessions Increases First Year Students’ Self-Efficacy. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(8), 1539-1547.
Grøtan, K., Sund, E. R., & Bjerkeset, O. (2019). Mental health, academic self-efficacy and study progress among college students-The SHoT study, Norway. Frontiers in psychology, 10, 45.
 Gumusgul, O. (2019). Sports or Fine Arts? Investigation of Free Time Management Skills of Participants Interested in Sports and Fine Arts. Journal of Educational Issues, 5(1), 20-29.
Gutiérrez, M., & Tomás, J. M. (2019). The role of perceived autonomy support in predicting university students’ academic success mediated by academic self-efficacy and school engagement. Educational Psychology, 39(6), 729-748.
Häfner, A., Stock, A., & Oberst, V. (2015). Decreasing students’ stress through time management training: An intervention study. European journal of psychology of education, 30(1), 81-94.
Hallion, L. S., Tolin, D. F., & Diefenbach, G. J. (2019). Enhanced cognitive control over task-irrelevant emotional distractors in generalized anxiety disorder versus obsessive-compulsive disorder. Journal of anxiety disorders, 64, 71-78.
Hans M. Nordahl.; Thomas, D. Borkovec.; Roger Hagen. & Leif E. O. Kennair. (2018). Metacognitive therapy versus cognitive–behavioural therapy in adults with generalised anxiety disorder. The Royal College of Psychiatrists, 4(5), 393-400.
Henrik, Nordahl and Adrian, Wells. Metacognitive Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder: An A–B Replication Series Across Social Anxiety Subtypes. 2018. Psychol Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY).
Hongxia, F., & Xiao, W. (2015). Influence of Time-Management Disposition Training on Female Postgraduates' Anxiety, Depression and Subjective Well-being. China Journal of Health Psychology, (2), 35.
Honicke, T., & Broadbent, J. (2016). The influence of academic self-efficacy on academic performance:
 
A systematic review. Educational Research Review, 17, 63-84.
HosseinKhanzadeh, A. (2018). The effect of time management training on stress reduction and test anxiety of students with dyslexia. Journal of Psychological Science, 16(64), 508-525. [Persian].
Jalilzadeh, H., Zarei, H. (2018). The Effect of Self-Regulation Strategies on Academic Motivation and Test Anxiety in Students. Journal of Instruction and Evaluation, 11(42), 13-36. [Persian].
Jenaabadi, H., Nastiezaie, N. & Jalalzaei, S. (2016). The Effect of Time Management Training on Student’s Test Anxiety. JNE.; 5 (1) :12-22. [Persian].
Jing, J., Morgan, P. T (1999). Differential roles of buccal elements of the feeding central pattern generator (CPG) in switching CBI-2-induced motor programs in Aplysia. In Soc Neurosci Abstr (Vol. 25, p. 1643).
Karaoglan-Yilmaz, F. G., Yilmaz, R., Üstün, A. B., & Keser, H. (2019). Examination of Critical Thinking Standards and Academic Self-Efficacy of Teacher Candidates as a Predictor of Metacognitive Thinking Skills through Structural Equation Modelling. Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi, 12(4), 1239-1256.
Knoll, R. W., Valentiner, D. P., & Holzman, J. B. (2019). Development and Initial Test of the Safety Behaviors in Test Anxiety Questionnaire: Superstitious Behavior, Reassurance Seeking, Test Anxiety, and Test Performance. Assessment, 26(2), 271-280.
Liao, H. C., & Wang, Y. H. (2018). Using comprehension strategies for students' self-efficacy, anxiety, and proficiency in reading English as a foreign language. Social Behavior and Personality: an international journal, 46(3), 447-458.
Li, K. C., & Wong, B. T. M. (2019). Enhancing learners' metacognition for smart learning: effects of deep and surface learning, disorganisation, achievement goals and self-efficacy. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 1(3), 203-217.
Medina, M. S., Castleberry, A. N., & Persky, A. M. (2017). Strategies for improving learner metacognition in health professional education. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 81(4), 78.
Muwonge, C. M., Schiefele, U., Ssenyonga, J., & Kibedi, H. (2019). Modeling the relationship between motivational beliefs, cognitive learning strategies, and academic performance of teacher education students. South African Journal of Psychology, 49(1), 122-135.
Nordahl H., Nordahl H. M., Hjemdal O., Wells A. (2017). Cognitive and metacognitive predictors of symptom improvement following treatment of social anxiety disorder: a secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial. Clin. Psychol. Psychother. 24 1221–1227. 10.1002/cpp.2083
Ping, W. A. N. G., & Xiaochun, W. A. N. G. (2018). Effect of time management training on anxiety, depression, and sleep quality. Iranian journal of public health, 47(12), 1822.
 Putwain, D. W., & Pescod, M. (2018). Is reducing uncertain control the key to successful test anxiety intervention for secondary school students? Findings from a randomized control trial. School Psychology Quarterly, 33(2), 283.
Sen, S., & Yilmaz, A. (2016). Devising a Structural Equation Model of Relationships between Preservice Teachers' Time and Study Environment Management, Effort Regulation, Self-Efficacy, Control of Learning Beliefs, and Metacognitive Self-Regulation. Science Education International, 27(2), 301-316.
Shahrokhi, M., Nasri, S. (2014). The Study on the Relationship between Perfectionism and Test Anxiety and Academic Procrastination in University Students. The Journal of New Thoughts on Education, 10(2), 163-185.
Sheykholeslami, A. (2016). The Prediction of Academic Procrastination based on Cognitive Strategies, Metacognitive Strategies and Test Anxiety in University Students. , 4(6), 81-101. [Persian].
Spielberger, C.D., Gonzalez, H.P., Taylor, C.I., Algaze,_B., & Anton, W. D. (1978). Examination stress and test_anxiety. In C. D. Spielberger & I. G. Sarason (Eds.),_ Stress and anxiety. Washington, DC: Wiley.
Vanstone, D. M., & Hicks, R. E. (2019). Transitioning to university: Coping styles as mediators between adaptive-maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences, 141, 68-75.
 Ward, K. R., & Smith, T. (2019). Reducing Test Anxiety Through Mind Relaxation in Undergraduate Nursing Students. International Journal of Innovation Education and Research, 7(1), 64-73.
Wolters, C. A., Won, S., & Hussain, M. (2017). Examining the relations of time management and procrastination within a model of self-regulated learning. Metacognition and learning, 12(3), 381-399.
Xu, J., Huang, Y. (2018).  The Mediating Effect of Listening Metacognitive Awareness Between Listening Test Anxiety and Listening Test Performance, The Asia-Pacific Education Researcher, 27(4), 313-324.
Yaghoobi, A., Mohagheghi, H., Yousef Zade, M., Ganji, K., Olfatii, N. (2014). The effect of time management training on test anxiety and academic achievement motivation among high school students. Journal of School Psychology, 3(1), 131-144. [Persian].
Yilmaz, R. (2016). Knowledge sharing behaviors in e-learning community: Exploring the role of academic self-efficacy and sense of community. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 373-382.
Ziegler, N., & Opdenakker, M. C. (2019). The development of academic procrastination in first-year secondary education students: The link with metacognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, and effort regulation. Learning and Individual Differences64, 71-82.
Ziegler, N., & Opdenakker, M. C. (2018). The development of academic procrastination in first-year secondary education students: The link with metacognitive self-regulation, self-efficacy, and effort regulation. Learning and Individual Differences, 64, 71-82.